Pig production is a lucrative economic venture that can be practiced by low income livestock farmers at the farm level.
The sow has short gestation period and farrows several young ones at a go.
When properly managed, pig production can improve the economic, social and health status of farmers.
To start production/rearing of pigs you need the following to construct your pig sty
Iron sheet/roofing grass (thatching grass)
- Wood (boards and scantlings)
- Concrete (expensive but durable), bricks
- Local mud fortified with cement
- Combination of any of the above
Floor space for sty construction.
The success of any pig enterprise depends first and foremost on the feeding of stock with a well-balanced diet.
The nutritional needs of pigs in the various phases of their life cycle vary, hence to achieve the maximum benefits of fast growth and efficient feed conversation, there is the need to meet the feed requirement of the critical stages.
Ration for pigs
|Type of ingredient|
|Class of pig||Maize (kg)||Fish meal (kg)||Soyabean meal (kg)||Wheat bran (kg)|
For all classes- shell grit -1kg
Daily intake (kg) – piglets 0.5; weaners 1.5; growers 2.5; boars& dry sows 3.0; pregnant sows 4.5; lactating sows 5.0
|Energy source||Maize, cassava, guinea corn, maize bran, rice bran, pito mash, yam, cassava and plantain peels, corn cobs, groundnut skin, cocoa pod husk|
|Protein source||Fish meal, groundnut cake, copra cake, cotton seed cake, soyabean meal, ground nuts, brewers spent grain, palm kennel meal, cassava leaf meal|
|Mineral source||Common salt, bone meal, dicalcium phosphate, oyster shell|
|Vitamin source||Commercial vit, supplements fish meal, green forages and yellow maize|
- Gestation period -3 months 3 weeks 3 days (114days)
- Weaning-6 weeks
- Maturity (sexuality) -6 months, gilts should be mated at 8-9 months of age i.e. 2nd or 3rd heat period
- Reproduction rate – 2 times in a year
- Average litter size -8
- Heat period (when female will allow mating) 21 days cycle
- After weaning, the sow comes on the 4th and 14th day
- Observe pigs carefully for ill- health daily
- Clean pig sty with water every morning
- Give adequate clean water morning and afternoon
- Castrate unwanted males between the ages of 1-3 weeks of birth or soon after weaning
- Administer iron dextron to new born piglets within the first 3 days (dosage is 2 cc/piglet)
- 0Clip needle teeth of piglets within first 3 days of birth
- Deworm mature boars 3 time/year, growing pigs 3 time i.e. once during each phase of the life cycle (starting, growing and finishing), pregnant sows 10 days before farrowing date and lactating sows, before or soon after weaning.